WoodWeek 5 February 2020
Moving to markets – you’ll recall that last week sawmillers were lobbying the Government for ways to stop overseas competitors’ subsidies from distorting the New Zealand log prices. This week, black clouds are gathering for our biggest log export market as the effects of China’s travel lockdowns beginning to hit our log trade. The coronavirus outbreak comes on top of new supplies of softwood into China, due to the salvage of insect and windstorm damaged spruce forests in Central and Eastern Europe.
With renewable wood energy being a mainstream technology for close to two decades, finally Fonterra is finally dipping a toe in the water. They are about to install wood renewable energy at one of three North Island mill dehydration plants. They've just announced plans for the Te Awamutu site to be coal free next season. Taupo-based Nature’s Flame will be supplying the pellets made from sustainable wood fibre residues from the surrounding areas. Maybe it’s time to run another “Residues to Revenues” technology conference?
Today we have a reminder for our valued conference clients. Please note, for MobileTECHAg 2020 in New Zealand, early- bird registrations FINISH this Friday. Registrations are now also open for the FIEA Forest Industry Safety & Technology 2020. This week we announced two keynote speakers with important practical messages for managing safety and fatigue in our workplaces. Early Bird Rates have been extended for this event, so make sure you REGISTER NOW to get your discounted ticket!
As you all know, our team has a keen interest in all things to do with technology for forest and wood products. So we're pleased to have both a global and local story on the use of advanced technologies for forest monitoring in today's issue. We are also bringing together international technology experts at our Vancouver conference – ForestTECHX 2020 on 17-18 March. Registrations are still available for this global forest technology event.
Finally this week, farmers must be really feeling threatened as carbon prices seem to be on the verge of a paradigm shift. They have enlisted the meat industry to caution our politicians about the sins of too many trees on ‘their’ land. Their advice to Government is that a cap is needed on the use of forestry offsets under the emissions trading scheme to avoid potentially “profound” changes in land use that could threaten jobs in the regions. Maybe the forestry lobby should have lobbied on a cap on dairy conversions in the past?
This week we have for you:
Log export markets: Monthly updateThanks to the team at Champion Freight we have the summary for 2019 log export statistics from New Zealand. As you can see the 80/20 rule sums up the markets for the year.
Leadership change for Pan PacPan Pac CEO Retires after 45 years - Doug Ducker stepped down last week as Managing Director (CEO), after 15 years in the top role and 45 years in the business. Mr Ducker joined Pan Pac in December 1974 and, excluding a brief period working in Sydney in 1984, has been with the company ever since. Tony Clifford, existing General Manager – Pulp, has been appointed Managing Director effective 1 February.
Mr Clifford has been with Pan Pac for 27 years. Initially employed as an electrical engineer, he has held technical and managerial roles within the company and has been a member of the executive management group for 15 years. Mr Clifford has overseen a $70m upgrade of the pulpmill and the development of markets for BCTMP (pulp) into Asia and beyond.
Initially employed as a process engineer to support the expanding pulpmill operation, Mr Ducker assumed roles covering technical services, environmental management, project development and production management. In October 2004, he became Managing Director of Pan Pac with responsibility for the forestry, sawmilling and pulping operations.
Looking back over his time with Pan Pac, Mr Ducker said he had seen tremendous change in the company over the past 45 years.
“I have been fortunate to work with excellent people from our staff through to our suppliers, contractors, shareholders, iwi and the wider community,” said Mr Ducker. “The time now feels right to pass on my corporate responsibilities and to explore new projects involving family and friends.”
Image: Tony Clifford
Log exporters bracing for virus impactNew Zealand forest owners wary of closing access risk in Chinese market - Log exporters are bracing themselves for supply chain problems in China due to the outbreak of coronavirus.
Some forest owners are already reducing their harvesting rate. Regrettably this will have an immediate effect on harvesting crew employment.
The New Zealand Forest Owners Association says that the extended Lunar New Year public holiday makes it difficult to know what is going to happen when sawmills in China restart.
Association President Peter Weir says he understands that log ships continue to be unloaded, but he says we need to wait to determine what the offtake volume of logs might be after the traditional New Year break. There is industry concern that if the virus were to infect more people in coastal towns and cities then access to Chinese ports could be restricted with little warning.
China is by far the largest and most important market for New Zealand’s export logs and by value New Zealand earns half its export income from China.
The coronavirus outbreak comes on top of new supplies of softwood into China, due to the salvage of insect and windstorm damaged spruce forests in Central and Eastern Europe. Warmer winters and longer summers have led to very high rates of spruce beetle infestation with large areas of forests being clear-felled and salvage logs railed and shipped to China.
In the coming year, exports of bushfire damaged pine logs from Australia also have the potential to increase the softwood supply to China.
Peter Weir says, “We know from our embassy in Beijing that the Chinese central government authorities are doing an excellent job of both trying to protect people from the spread of coronavirus and at the same time ensuring economic activity is sustained. But nobody knows how long and widespread the coronavirus outbreak will be and what effect that will have on any medium-term trade.”
“We are most concerned about the effect on the harvesting workforce in many regions of New Zealand which depend on log exports.”
“Forest owner capacity and circumstances vary hugely. Those owners who supply domestic sawmills will be largely unaffected, but the domestic market can only take less than half the current annual harvest and not all log grades.”
“Stockpiling logs is not a good option, because the logs deteriorate, especially at this time of the year, and unrestrained supply from here is a market threat.”
“I should say that it is possible that the disruption will turn out to be brief, as it was in mid-2019. It is entirely possible that the Chinese timber processing and construction industry will return to normal and the inventory stored at ports will diminish over the next few months as it normally does.”
“In the meantime, we hope that our valued sawmilling industry customers, often small family businesses, in and around port cities in China, are not impacted by the virus.
Weir says the industry leadership is closely working with MPI and Te Uru Rakau, supported by the New Zealand embassy in Beijing on the rapidly evolving situation.
FICA CEO, Prue Younger confirmed contractors being told to halt felling trees has come as a complete surprise. “The industry is reeling a bit as you would expect,” she said.
“Although market prices were on their way down again, the coronavirus impact has made this a very complex situation. It’s important that we’ll be working with forest owners daily and ascertain the extent of this fallout and how long our crews might expect to be out of work.”
“There are risks for everyone in this scenario and like all primary industries the ripples may be extensive.”
FIEA speaker focus: Forest Safety ConferenceRegistrations ARE OPEN for our FIEA Forest Safety & Technology conference series in Melbourne and Rotorua. Plans are well underway. Watch this space for the release of the full speaker program.
Keynote Speaker: Lance Burdett, WARN International With 22 years critical workplace safety experience including time as a crisis negotiator, protection officer, and emergency responder, Lance brings a unique approach to workplace health and safety.
He combines an understanding of how psychology can be used to enhance safe practices, ways to mitigate dangers through teamwork, and personal resilience tips to boost energy and stay alert to risk.
Lance is a fantastic speaker and very highly rated in the forest industry - don't miss your chance to hear what he has to say!
The Early Bird Rates have been extended, so register for either of our Rotorua or Melbourne conference - click here.
NZ forest loss mapping contract awardedConsortium led by Lynker Analytics awarded government contract to identify New Zealand forest loss using artificial intelligence - Wellington technology start-up Lynker Analytics has been selected by the Ministry for the Environment (the Ministry) to lead a consortium including UAV Mapping NZ and Carbon Forest Services to inventory the extent of forest loss in New Zealand during 2017 and 2018.
Each year 40,000 – 50,000 hectares of forest is harvested in New Zealand as part of normal forestry land use activity. Most of this forest area is replanted, however a small but significant area is deforested and converted to another land use.
Deforestation is an important form of land-use change from a greenhouse gas perspective. The Ministry assesses deforestation in New Zealand every two years to meet international reporting obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol.
The Ministry also provides deforestation mapping to the Ministry for Primary Industries for use by their compliance teams monitoring deforestation under the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme.
Under this contract the consortium will field check over 7,000 forested areas, covering approximately 84,000 hectares. These areas have already been identified in satellite imagery as having experienced forest disturbance during 2017 and 2018. The primary objective is to determine what the current land use of each area is and therefore identify the areas of deforestation.
UAV Mapping NZ will manage the flying programme which entails over 200 flying hours across every district in the country. Multiple fixed wing Cessna 172 aircraft operated by Rotorua based Action Aviation will be used.
The images, such as that shown here of a recently harvested forest block, will then be input into a machine learning algorithm for land cover analysis.
Matt Lythe, Managing Director of Lynker Analytics says “our machine learning process will deliver a classification system that will firstly apportion land cover to sub-areas within each forest block. This will generate detailed land cover information which we can then use to make final determinations of overall land use at a block level.” He goes on to say, “the detail and consistency of the information from the modelling will make the final land cover class very data driven and defensible.”
Forestry expert on the team, Ollie Belton from Carbon Forest Services adds “this approach will allow a more refined set of land-use classifications that aligns with both domestic and international rules on land-use, land-use change, and forestry. We will be able to accurately assess whether or not each block has been re-planted, is naturally re-generating, has suffered natural damage or has been converted to grazing or another purpose.”
Scheduled for completion by 30 June this year the Consortium will also offset the aviation emissions associated with the project in accordance with the Ministry for the Environment’s Measuring and Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions using high quality New Zealand units from permanent forest sinks.
Nature's Flame expands productionNature’s Flame has completed a significant expansion which provides increased renewable energy for New Zealand businesses - The Nature’s Flame Taupo facility has recently undergone a significant expansion with an investment from parent company Norske Skog of around NZD$8 million. This has enabled production to increase to 85,000 tonnes of premium quality wood pellets per year, all from sustainably sourced fibre residues.
“Utilising local, unused geothermal energy we have eliminated bottlenecks and more than doubled our plant’s output. This provides further opportunity to supply leading businesses across New Zealand with premium renewable fuel to supply their energy needs while importantly supporting their environmental goals and also helping to meet New Zealand’s commitment for emissions reductions”, said John Goodwin – Nature’s Flame Operations Manager.
“Working with Contact Energy has enabled a smooth transition over to geothermal energy, further increasing the facility’s efficiency and improving its environmental performance”, he said.
Following the expansion, Nature’s Flame are proud to be able to partner with large scale energy users like Fonterra’s Te Awamutu milk processing site and work with them to reduce or eliminate their use of coal. In the case of Fonterra, the switch to wood pellets will reduce their annual carbon emissions by the equivalent of 32,000 cars on our roads each year.
Fonterra moves to convert Te Awamutu site to wood pellet power - Fonterra is taking another step forward in its commitment to renewable energy as it announces that its Te Awamutu site will be coal free next season.
Until now the site has used a combination of fuels to process milk - including coal. This latest move, follows a trial last year and means it will switch from using coal at the end of this season, starting the 2020/21 season powering the boiler with wood pellets.
Fonterra’s Sustainable Energy and Utility Manager Linda Thompson says it’s an exciting step for the Co-operative and, in particular, the Te Awamutu team.
“It really demonstrates that sustainability, doing what’s right for the long term good, is very much at the heart of how we’re working and thinking about our future.”
Last year, Fonterra announced a series of environmental targets relating to its coal use, manufacturing emissions and water efficiency, packaging and farm environment plans.
“The move to wood pellets at Te Awamutu will save the Co-operative about 84,000 tonnes of carbon emissions every year, that’s the equivalent of taking around 32,000 cars off the road and will reduce Fonterra’s national coal consumption by approximately 10 per cent.
“It’s a positive step forward as we look to reduce emissions and work towards net zero carbon emissions by 2050.”
The Te Awamutu site is one of three North Island sites that are currently using coal. Ms Thompson says the Co-operative knows it’s got a big challenge ahead of it to get out of coal but it’s one that it’s up for. “There is no one single solution for us to transition out of coal. We know we can’t do it alone, that’s why working with others like wood pellet supplier Nature’s Flame and the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Authority (EECA) are so important.” Taupo based Nature’s Flame will be supplying the pellets made from sustainable wood fibre residues from the surrounding areas.
New technology for global forest monitoringFirst comprehensive portal to track international capacity development support for forest monitoring and climate action - The Global Forest Observations Initiative (GFOI) has unveiled a new portal for tracking international capacity development support to developing countries in forest monitoring. The GFOI Inventory of Activities provides easy-to-access information on the assistance being delivered by the international community to developing countries to improve their forest monitoring capabilities.
The Inventory includes more than 400 forest monitoring activities in some 70 developing countries across Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean. The information displayed has been collated by GFOI partners, including national governments, development practitioners, space agencies and other experts who are all seeking to better coordinate their forest monitoring assistance. “We are excited to announce the GFOI Inventory of Activities is now live to the public. This platform demonstrates the enormity of work undertaken in the forest monitoring sector and we hope it will further encourage global coordination,” said the Manager of the GFOI Office, Tom Harvey.
Since 2011, GFOI’s mission has been to coordinate the delivery of international assistance in forest monitoring. “This tool allows us to quickly and easily see the breadth of support being delivered to developing countries by GFOI’s international partners. It also serves as a vital tool for global coordination in the forest monitoring sector. From the platform, we can identify gaps, avoid overlaps and explore opportunities for new partnerships to address the challenges that implementing countries face as they develop their National Forest Monitoring Systems,” Thomas Harvey added.
The tool was designed and populated by the partners leading the initiative including: Australia, Germany, Norway UK, US’s SilvaCarbon Programme, the International Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), the European Space Agency (ESA), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank. The platform will be maintained by the GFOI Office, hosted by FAO, with funding from Australia and Norway.
Source: FAO Global Forest Operations Initiative
Source: SOPI December 2019
Carbon Match market updateAfter the excitement ...
Since the Government's proposed ETS settings were announced just prior to Christmas, we have watched NZU prices jump up significantly. The announcement came immediately after Carbon Match had shut shop for Christmas, but the key new information of immediate note to the market was to the proposal raise the fixed price option to $35 and then do away with it altogether in favour of a much more nebulous cost containment reserve with a trigger price of $50.
Excitement and agitation abounded on both sides of the market, foresters had little appetite to sell against such a bright future and emitters returned from their holidays to find prices in the $28s - an uncomfortable feeling for some. Spot prices climbed rapidly sometimes on the basis of relatively low volumes and it felt like each day might see another new high trade, right up to briefly touching on $29.25. But then ...
... Came the anticlimax
Last week buyers appeared to suddenly falter as sellers emerged. Bids were sold into and spot prices move down fairly sharply, hitting a low for the calendar year to date of $27.50.
So, what happened? We think a combination of factors are at play.
An election was called - for September the 19th, meaning that parliament will be disolved in early August. The next six months will move fast and be increasingly dominated by all the usual politicking that goes on in an election year.
Meanwhile complaints have come from various quarters about the tight timeframes for ETS settings consultation. In the process, those involved with the carbon market have perhaps been reminded that it is still a consultation; that settings are still "proposals", and that the Emissions Trading Reform Bill still needs to move through the house. You won't find a cold hard $35 in legislation, let alone $50. Yet. Until May this year that number is still effectively $25.
So backwards the price has slipped, and as it did, many buyers pulled back to "watch what happens". And this caution is occuring just at the point that emitters and foresters likewise seek to position themselves (to the extent they can) to use the FPO of $25 to lock down the cost of future carbon liabilities.
Is this reason for panic among NZU holders? We don't think so. We have simply come off $1.75 from a never-seen-before-high. But we have seen greater falls - and recoveries - than this before.
The ETS Reform bill may not yet be a done deal. But the institutional support for much higher carbon prices in future is now there. We have a Zero carbon Act that obliges NZ to contribute to global efforts under the Paris Agreement to limit the global average temperature increase to 1.5°. We are pursuing free trade agreements with countries that really do care about mitigating emissions, and increasingly face the prospect of future border tax adjustments if we fail to act.
We now have an institution - an independent Climate Commission - which will hang around much longer than any Government. That entity is supposed to recommend our first three carbon budgets out to 2035. Over time, as the new Commission works through this process, grows its teeth and its reputation, it should serve to provide at least some insulation to our small carbon market from political interference in price trajectories like that we have seen in the past (eg - the overnight halving of market size with the 2 for 1 deal introduced under National).
But that's then, this is now and 2020 remains an awkward and truncated election year. Roll on interference. With the ETS Reform bill still not a done deal we can certainly expect further volatility between now and September.
Spot NZUs - Bid $27.50, offer $27.90, last trade (Friday pm) $27.65.
Source: Carbon Match - every weekday from 1-5pm.
MPs warned on trees costing jobsMPs warned wrong trees in wrong place will cost jobs - A cap is needed on the use of forestry offsets under the emissions trading scheme to avoid potentially “profound” changes in land use that could threaten jobs in many regions, the Meat Industry Association says.
Forestry planting on marginal land can provide a temporary store of carbon to help meet the country’s emissions targets, association chief executive Tim Ritchie said.
But he told MPs that no consideration had been given to the potential social and economic consequences if that planting reduced the availability of productive land and the stock for the country’s meat processors.
Even closing one chain at a plant would have big implications for the often small, rural communities that they were located in, he said.
Ritchie told Parliament’s environment committee that a 15 percent reduction in stock for Affco’s Moerewa plant in Northland would halt the sheep kill there and reduce work on the beef line.
That would eliminate 98 of the 243 jobs there currently, in a town of about 1,400, and take about $5 million out of the regional economy.
“That is likely to be repeated in a number of regional economies,” he said.
“Rural communities cannot simply shift workers who were employed at meat processors onto different industries. In many cases there are no additional industries.”
Increased forestry – with planting of the right trees on the right land - is a key policy of the current government, both to help meet its net-zero carbon target for 2050 and to create more jobs in woods processing.
But there is growing disquiet that rules intended to encourage that planting – of both native and exotic species – don’t adequately target marginal land and may take farms out of production instead.
Data up to September show that almost 13 percent of forest land registered last year for the ETS – half the rate in 2018 - was on land classed 1-5. Land rated up to four is generally suitable for all farming, including vegetables or arable crops. A rating of eight is unsuitable for even lower-value grazing or production forestry.
Ritchie told the committee that a cap on the use of offsets would force emitters to reduce actual emissions and avoid the potential unintended consequences of over- planting. Failing that, the Climate Change Commission should be required to estimate the social and economic impacts expected from the use of forestry offsets when setting its five-yearly carbon budgets.
Asked whether he was more concerned about too many trees or industrially produced ‘fake meat’, he said trees.
“This is very, very real.”
The committee is considering legislation that will introduce auctions into the emissions trading scheme and raise the current $25 a tonne fixed-price option to $35. That option will then be removed entirely and replaced with a cost containment reserve.
The legislation also provides for the phase-down of free emission credits granted to major emitters who are also at risk from international rivals that don’t face carbon charges.
Despite the scale of the changes proposed, most of yesterday’s submissions were heard by only two of the committee’s nine members. No speakers got more than 10 minutes in a highly truncated process. Further submissions were due to be heard today and on Feb. 10.
Many submitters yesterday cited the lack of detailed modelling by officials on the potential impact the changes would have on carbon costs and their lack of confidence that the proposed cost containment reserve – intended to make more units available for auction at a trigger price of $50 a tonne – would actually cap prices.
Spot carbon prices jumped to about $29 – a 20 percent increase – in late December when the government announced that proposal in a separate discussion document.
Hiringa and Waitomo partnershipInnovative Kiwi energy companies Waitomo Group and Hiringa Energy have announced their intentions to work in partnership to develop New Zealand’s first nationwide hydrogen refuelling stations network.
Taranaki-based Hiringa Energy is the first company in New Zealand dedicated to the supply of green hydrogen, providing solutions for industry, the public sector, and transport operators. Waikato-based Waitomo Group is New Zealand’s fastest-growing independent fuel retailer.
Together the two high-growth companies will work on the detailed engineering requirements and consenting for a network of hydrogen refuelling sites - some of which will be on existing Waitomo Fuel Stops. Initial locations have been selected, with plans for a further 20 stations to be developed across both the North and South Island.
Hiringa Energy CEO and Co-Founder, Andrew Clennett, says the partnering with Waitomo brings together the complementary skills and strengths of two innovative, future-focused companies to provide leadership in the development of hydrogen as a viable alternative commercial fuel source for New Zealand.
“Heavy transport makes up only four percent of our vehicles, but they’re responsible for over 25 percent of our total vehicle emissions. Hydrogen is the key technology that will allow these fleets to stay on the road – a mass-market, clean energy solution that can have a real impact on reducing our transport emissions,” Mr Clennett says.
“Two small Kiwi, family-owned businesses working together to show leadership in this space, for our children’s future and for the wider economy, is really exciting and the potential for New Zealand is huge, but we can’t do it on our own.
“Delivering high-impact, commercially-viable solutions to reduce emissions will require input and partnership between government, cities, regions and private businesses. Establishing partnerships with leading companies like Waitomo is a key strategy to enable this transition, and we look forward to more partners coming on board with us.”
Waitomo Managing Director Jimmy Ormsby says his third-generation, family-run company has been evolving its business model over the last 70 years to meet New Zealand’s unique energy requirements.
“From my grandfather Desmond Ormsby’s foundation of the business in 1947 in Te Kuiti, to my father Grey Ormsby’s management of the business and then on to me, we’ve all been focused on building and growing Waitomo for the benefit of all Kiwis. That includes providing fuel supply for future generations of New Zealanders.
“Adding low emission alternative fuel solutions to our network is a no-brainer. We want to leave a legacy for the next generation of Ormsby’s to continue in our footsteps. The exciting opportunities that green hydrogen technology offers allows us to deliver on that.
“Working with a company like Hiringa that shares our values and vision, and wants to make a positive impact on New Zealand’s future fuel supply options for Kiwis and Kiwi businesses, is a project we’re really proud to be involved in.”
Development and consenting for the first hydrogen refuelling sites will get under way this year. The two companies will work together to identify and scope further sites for development of the network in 2020.
Image: From left to right – Catherine Clennett (Hiringa Executive Director and Co-Founder), Jimmy Ormsby (Waitomo Managing Director), Dan Kahn (Hiringa CTO and Co-Founder) Simon Parham (Waitomo COO) and Andrew Clennett (Hiringa CEO and Co-Founder).
Timbeter to expand internationallyEstonian forestry startup Timbeter collects $1 million to expand in Southeast Asia and Latin America - Timbeter, an Estonion startup working in precision forestry, has raised $1 million toward its goals of optimising forestry, securing legal trade and fighting illegal logging. The seed round was led by TMT Investments and Change Ventures, with EigenKapital, Contriber Ventures and Wiser participating as well.
The Tallinn-based company developed a smartphone application that measures timber quickly and accurately, which is now a full-fledged logistics and reporting platform.
It sounds simple, but the impact is wide-reaching and complex. Timbeter’s artificial intelligence technology helps companies in the forestry sector speed up operations, increase employee safety, save resources, and comply with transparency, forest governance and legal trade.
“By facilitating smooth digital data exchange between the government and companies, it is easier to ensure sustainable forest management and fight illegal logging,” explained Anna-Greta Tsahkna, CEO of Timbeter.
Founded in 2013, the startup has compiled the world’s largest database of photometric measurements of roundwood, which allows live online tracking of timber assets, down to individual shipments and piles throughout the forestry value chain.
Compared to traditional methods, Timbeter’s algorithms reportedly cut measurement and documentation times by 10 and increase accuracy by five times.
Currently the platform serves over 20,000 users in more than 60 countries, in 14 languages. With the new funding, the company plans to fuel expansion in Southeast Asia and Latin America.
Source: Tech EU
...and finally ... Funnies for married folks
Smith goes to see his supervisor in the front office. "Boss," he says, "we're doing some
house-cleaning at home tomorrow, and my wife needs me to help with the attic and the
moving and hauling stuff."
One day a man comes home from work to find total mayhem at home.The kids were outside still in their pajamas playing in the mud and muck. There were empty food boxes and wrappers all around.
As he proceeded into the house, he found an even bigger mess. Dishes on the counter, dog food spilled on the floor, a broken glass under the table, and a small pile of sand by the back door.
The family room was strewn with toys and various items of clothing, and a lamp had been knocked over.
He headed up the stairs, stepping over toys, to look for his wife. He was becoming worried that she may be ill, or that something had happened to her.
He found her in the bedroom, still in bed with her pajamas on, reading a book. She looked up at him, smiled, and asked how his day went.
He looked at her bewildered and asked, "What happened here today?"
She again smiled and answered, "You know everyday when you come home from work and ask me what I did today?"
"Yes," came his startled reply.
She answered, "Well, today I didn't do it!"
I was about to fix the attic fan, and as I lifted myself from the ladder in the attic, I scratched my forehead on a crossbeam.
Crawling along, I picked up splinters in both hands, and I cut one hand replacing the fan belt.
On the way down the ladder, I missed the last two rungs and twisted my ankle.
When I limped into the kitchen, covered in dust and blood, my wife took one look and said, "Are those your good pants?"
That's all for this week's wood news.
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